Menachem Mendel

Menachem Mendel

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The Languages of the Jews

The different languages that Jews have spoken throughout our history have been varied and numerous. One of the more unfortunate developments of the last few decades is that many of these languages are disappearing. In order to at least provide some record of these languages a website has been created that attempts to document these different languages. The website is open to people sending recordings of people speaking different Jewish dialects, so it you can help, record away.

Since as part of my year in Israel after high school I lived with a family on a Moshav that came from Djerba, I am partial to the Judeo-Arabic dialect of the Jews from Djerba. Below is a recording of a man describing the observance of Yom Kippur in Djerba. Although I still hear the dialect whenever I visit this family, I have forgotten most of the words and phrases that I learned. The one that I do remember has to do with my Hebrew name, Menachem Mendel. When I first told them this name they broke out laughing. It took a minute until one of them told me that in the Judeo-Arabic dialect that they spoke Mindil means rag.

Angels, Demons, and Ghosts in the Talmud

There is now a database available online for angels, demons, and ghosts in the Babylonian Talmud. HT

Israel Channel 1 on Women in the World of Gemara and Halakhah

From Israel Ch 1:

Also see this article by Tzvika Klein on the recent statement by the OU on women in religious leadership positions.

The William Davidson Talmud

This is really big news from Sefaria:

Today, Sefaria is excited and humbled to announce the release of The William Davidson Talmud, a free digital edition of the Babylonian Talmud that will include English and Modern Hebrew translation by Rabbi Adin Steinsaltz, interlinked to major commentaries, biblical citations, Midrash, Kabbalah, Halakhah, and an ever-growing library of Jewish texts.

You can already access 22 tractates in English (Berakhot through Bava Batra) on Sefaria. The Modern Hebrew translations will begin appearing online later this year, and the remaining English tractates will follow.

For the Jewish people, our texts are our collective inheritance. Sefaria wants them to be available to everyone, with free and open licenses. Through the generous support of The William Davidson Foundation, Rabbi Steinsaltz’s translations will be available with a Creative Commons Non-Commercial license, making them free for use and re-use — even beyond Sefaria.

Learn more here!

Free Download: Studies in the Making of Early Hebrew Book

In celebration of Academic Book Week, Brill Publishers has made a number of books available for free online. Of interest to readers of this blog may be Marvin J. Heller’s Studies in the Making of Early Hebrew Book. HT

New Volume: Contemporary Halakhic Problems

There is no halakhic authority writing in English who is more prolific than Rabbi J. David Bleich. Magid, an imprint of Koren Publishers, has just published his recent Contemporary Halakhic Problems: Volume VII. Koren was kind enough to send me a copy and this most recent volume doesn’t disappoint.

New Book: Gender Equality and Prayer in Jewish Law


I am sure that this will enrich all of our understandings on the subject, Gender Equality and Prayer in Jewish Law. It’s available for pre-order on Amazon.

New Books: From Mesopotamia to the Mishnah

Congratulations to Dr. Jonathan Milgram on his new book:

JTS BookTalk Milgram

Did the Sages Forget the Hasmoneans

Many scholars have addressed the place of the Hasmoneans in Talmudic literature. The most well-known treatment in Israel is Gedaliah Alon’s “Did the Jewish People and Its Sages Cause the Hasmoneans to be Forgotten?” Another contribution to the academic discussion around this question has been written by Vered Noam and recently published in Zion, “Did the Rabbis Cause the Hasmoneans to be Forgotten? A Reconsideration.” From now until the end of Hanukah Zion has posted the article (Hebrew) online for viewing, it can’t be downloaded or printed. The article can be accessed here.

From the English summary:

This article offers a fresh perspective on a stormy scholarly debate that has been ongoing for almost two centuries surrounding the rabbinic attitude toward the Hasmonean dynasty. To date, the scholarship has not discriminated between geographically and historically distant sources, combining testimony from the Second Temple period with that from late rabbinic sources. This article takes a different approach, making a clear distinction between traditions that most likely belong to the Second Temple period and their secondary reworking in rabbinic citations. By separating ancient embedded fragments from their deliberate reworking, it is possible to characterize both the attitude toward the Hasmoneans in temple times and the shifts that took place among the redactors and transmitters of rabbinic literature. This reconsideration demonstrates that the rabbis indeed sought to erase the memory of the individual Maccabean brothers, but that they did not display a negative attitude toward the Hasmonean dynasty as an institution. Their outlook on the generations of the Hasmonean leaders – whether positive or negative – was the outcome of their attempt to present history from the ‘rabbinic’ perspective, in which the Torah and its scholars took center stage.

Hanukah Sameah.

Israeli Rabbis and Christmas Trees


Every few years the Israeli Chief Rabbinate seems to think that Christmas trees are a threat to the Jewish character of Israel. The latest chapter in the Rabbinate Christmas Tree Saga began after a Christmas tree was placed in the student center of the Technion and the campus rabbi ruled that religious Jews should avoid entering that space or eating at restaurants that are found there. There was even a small demonstration of religious students against the Christmas tree.

Additionally, the Chief Rabbinate threatened to revoke the kashrut certificate of any hotel that had a Christmas tree in its lobby. One hotel owner was even quoted as saying that “Obama lights Hanukah candles, why shouldn’t we decorate a tree”?

From the JTA:

Rabbinic officials in Jerusalem and northern Israel recently issued separate statements saying that displays of Christmas trees are against Jewish law. Other Israelis rushed to the defense of the ornamented evergreens. The difference of opinion over Christmas highlighted disagreement about the role of religion in the Jewish state. In a letter that emerged Tuesday, the Jerusalem Rabbinate urged hotels in the city not to put up Christmas trees this year. “As the secular year ends, we want to remind you that erecting a Christmas tree in a hotel contravenes halacha and that therefore it is clear that no one should erect [a tree] in a hotel,” Ashkenazi Chief Rabbi Yona Metzger and Sephardi Chief Rabbi Shlomo Amar wrote to hotel managers. The letter also said it was “appropriate to avoid hosting” New Year’s parties, reminding hotel managers that the New Year is properly observed at the beginning of the Jewish calendar. A day earlier, the rabbi of the Technion-Israel Institute of Technology, a prestigious public science and engineering university in Haifa, forbade students from entering the student union on campus because of the presence of a Christmas tree in the building.

Someone posted to Twitter a picture of a Hanukiyah and a Christmas tree at Ben-Gurion Airport, so I wonder how that will affect traffic through the airport in the coming weeks.


The Technion has had a Christmas tree issue before, take for example this Maariv article from 1963.

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At a party for international students and Israelis the organizers displayed both a Christmas tree and Hanukiyah. The article even describes some discussion that went on that included different students describing the meaning of their holiday to the other group.

Not surprisingly there were some within the religious community who were upset at this incident. The religious journal Kol Sinai asked “How much will secular education decline–what will be the reaction of the government which covers a large portion of the Technion’s budget”?

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Two years later in 1965 there were a number of hotels who reported pressure from the Chief Rabbinate not to put up a Christmas tree in their hotels. The response from many of the hotel managers was that they had never done so in the past and weren’t intending on doing so this year.

In 1978 a reception was held during the Christmas season in the Knesset for European parlimentarians and a Christmas tree was put up. Not surprisingly, numerous religious MKs objected to the Christmas tree.

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The response to these Mks was that it wasn’t a Christmas tree at all, but rather a small tree that was always in the Knesset and was moved just for the reception.

I was able to find a number of interesting halakhic discussions on Christmas trees. One rabbi from Bat Yam (Shu”t Asher Hanan, vols. 6-7, par. 31) was asked whether a Jew can sell Christmas trees to non-Jews. The short answer, it’s possible to permit it. Rabbi Shmuel Vozner, the author of Responsa Shevet ha-Levi was asked (vol. 10, par. 132) whether the owner of a building can put up a Christmas tree for the non-Jewish residents. He wrote that it was permitted for a number of reasons: 1. Today a Christmas tree really has no religious or idolatrous meaning; 2. They can buy a Christmas tree from someone else; 3. If he refused to put up a Christmas tree it might cause enmity (איבה). Just to be sure, Rabbi Vozner suggests that the Jew make it clear that he is just doing this for the non-Jewish manager and that if possible, he should try and get money for doing it.

Photo of Christmas tree at Technion from here.




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